Industrial Energy Efficiency-Cambodia (IEEC)

Industrial Energy Efficiency Project is a 4 year project started from October 2011 till 2015. This project is funded by Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and implemented by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in collaboration with Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME) and National Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia (NCPO-C). The main goal of the project is to promote energy efficiency practices to reduce specific energy consumption (SEC) and finally reduce GHG emissions in Cambodian industrial sectors. The project will bring about the deployment and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies and practices in industrial production. The project will cover a wide spectrum of energy systems used by industries: electricity generators, furnaces, steam systems, combined heat and power systems on the energy generation side; motors, pumps, fans, compressed air, cooling towers, and refrigerating and cooling systems, on the energy consuming side.
Energy intensive sectors namely food processing, garment factory, rubber refinery, brick kiln and rice milling are selected. This objective is achieved by demonstrating the benefit of industrial energy efficiency, capacity building of relevant personnel, institutional strengthen, up-scaling of implementation.

Project Components:

Project Component 1 - Implementation of industrial energy efficiency pilot projects

Under project component 1 the project will provide company-specific technical assistance, including energy audits and project co-financing, to support the implementation of a limited number of demonstration IEE projects in selected 5 industrial sectors with high replication and/or energy savings potential. Sectoral profile based on survey conducted, preliminary audits carried out during PPG phase to work out potential of energy and GHG emission savings.
The project will also contribute financially toward the implementation of at least 13 selected pilot IEE projects. It has to be pointed out that these pilot companies will co-finance the major part of IEE implementation from their own resources, with the present project helping them in financial engineering and preparation of bankable proposals. On the basis of survey and preliminary energy audits carried out as well as discussions with industries & industry specific associations and equipment suppliers, significant opportunities for energy efficiency improvements exists both for thermal and electrical energy usage.
At the end of the PPG phase, the project has identified already 13 potential pilot projects and 40 quick scan projects from 5 identified sectors. In addition other potential projects have been proposed by few enterprises as part of up-scaling component. Letters of co-financing commitment have been secured from 12 enterprises participating in pilot project (list attached with commitment letter in separate document), however, for units participating in quick scan only verbal commitment has been obtained so far (list attached in separate document).
Based on the PPG survey and preliminary audits, sectoral report, interviews and survey information obtained from various industry representatives regarding energy technology applications in the sectors, the following projects are identified for the energy efficiency demonstration program:

Brick Kiln Sector:

  • Modification of existing kilns by optimizing combustion, improving draft, insulation and avoiding short circuiting to reduce thermal energy losses.
  • Replacement of kiln with energy efficient kiln like Fixed Chimney Bull Trench Kiln (BTK) and/or feasibility of continuous production Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBK) using biomass as fuel.
  • Substitution of diesel used as fuel for electricity generation for mixing and brick molding section with producer gas using biomass based gasifiers.

Food Sector:

  • Substitution of Diesel Generators used DO as fuel for electricity generation by replacing DO generators with duel fuel (70% gas & 30% DO)
  • Replacement of DG set with 100% Gas fired Engines.
  • Replacement of DO fired Dryers/Crispers with hot air dryer using producer gas.
  • Installation of appropriate size of Gasifier based on waste wood or other locally available agro residue depending on location and space available.
  • Substitution of inefficient piston type compressors with EE Screw compressor.
  • Collection reuses and recycles of hot water and condensate from various sources.

Rice Milling Sector:

  • Substitution of Diesel Engines used as driver for milling equipments by replacing duel fuel engines (70% gas & 30% DO).
  • Replacement Engine with 100% gas based engines.
  • Replacement of paddy dryer using fossil fuel with hot air dryer using rice husk or producer gas from gasifiers.
  • Installation of appropriate size of Gasifier based on rice husk.
  • Implementation of EE rice milling technology using separate motors for different equipment to reduce high energy loss from single drive engine.
  • Installation of compact rice milling line.

Garment Sector:

  • Substitution of Diesel used as fuel for captive Electricity generation
  • Substitution of Furnace oil or Diesel used as fuel for steam generation in boilers by replacing solid fuel fired boilers using available surplus biomass.
  • Replacement of wet processing machine (Washing/bleaching/dyeing) with low cloth: liquor ratio machine to reduce energy as well as other resource cons. and reduced waste water generation.
  • Substitution of inefficient piston type compressors with EE Screw compressors.
  • Substitution of inefficient dryers both mechanical (centrifuge) and thermal vertical front loading dyer using steam with EE squeezers and dryers.
  • Collection, reuse and recycle of hot water and condensate from various sources.
  • Optimizing lighting in production hall by replacing existing lights with EE lights, adjusting light proximity, install automatic control systems.
  • Installation of Capacitor bank to improve power factor.

Rubber Sector:

  • Substitution of rubber dryer uses Diesel as fuel with hot air dryer using waste rubber wood as fuel.
  • Substitution of rubber dryer using diesel as fuel with producer gas by installing waste wood based gasifier.
  • Replacement of Cup Lumps washer/ cleaner with energy efficient drums and installation of high-pressure fan flat /fish tail like nozzles.
  • Installation of Capacitor bank to improve power factor.

Under this component the project activities will be managed by NCPO-C with Department of Energy Techniques, Industrial Techniques of Ministry of Industry, Mines & Energy (MIME) and other relevant institutions, NGO's, and technology suppliers to deliver the following outputs:

  1. Energy efficiency projects for cumulative 45,000 TOEs per annum of energy savings and related potential economic savings are identified by 40 enterprises participating in the quick scan process and appraised by project experts (also refer Component 4 for scale up).
  2. At least 12 pilot IEE projects for cumulative 15,000 TOEs per annum of energy savings over the investments duration are implemented from selected industrial sectors, partnering in the project.
  3. Results of the pilot projects both in economic and environment context are compiled in a compendium for effective dissemination.

1) The objectives of the implementation of Industrial energy efficiency pilot projects are:

  • To develop and standardise (tailor made as per sector requirement) an energy audit and reporting format, worksheets and auditing tools to be used by the enterprises participating in Pilot project, quick scan and on their own audit using training tools.

This will help in uniform recording and reporting for ease of compilation of results achieved and also monitoring and verifying the resource (Energy & Material) and environmental savings through implementation of GEF-IEE project.

  • Energy performance benchmarking

Energy performance benchmarking focuses on a comparative analysis of energy use per unit of physical production, otherwise known as energy intensity. Determining the facility's energy intensity by fuel type specific indicators is necessary to workout potential of savings. Worksheets provided in energy audit format, energy calculator and GHG calculator will be used in collection and compilation of data. Comparison of energy intensity of selected sector and sub-sector with similar or comparable sector, equipment and/or product in Cambodia as well as other countries will be done. The available benchmarking reports for the sector industrial sectors will also be useful for benchmarking energy equipments like motors, fans, pumps, compressors, Diesel Generators, boiler etc.

  • Compendium of case studies from Pilot project

Further, the project component 1 will also involve the documentation of relevant energy project profiles and case studies on energy efficient technology applications in developed and developing countries, and in ASEAN. A compendium of IEE techniques and technology applications will also be prepared. More importantly, a computerized database of IEE technology application projects implemented in Cambodia, ASEAN and in the developed countries will also be prepared. For wider dissemination of benefits of IEE, results achieved from pilot projects and quick scan participating units also will be compiled in a user friendly compendium both in English and Khmer language. Output of component 1 will contribute to stimulate the creation a national market for IEE product and services and enabling environment for steady growth of IEE performance.
Energy efficiency strategy, coupled with low-carbon alternative technologies offers the comprehensive solutions and most direct path in achieving energy security and sustained emissions reduction potential. At the heart of this potential is the transfer of already proven cleaner and efficient technologies from one country to another where it has not yet been applied. Transfer of climate change related technologies has been identified as an effective strategy both from business perspective as well as global response to climate change.

Experience has shown that it’s not enough to merely invest in new technologies. For example, although many low-carbon technologies are already commercially viable, mainstreaming their use and transferring them to other markets is still a significant challenge in most countries. In some cases technologies are still too expensive compared to fossil-fuel technologies. In other cases, their uptake is slowed by market development barriers, limited access to information, inadequate government policies, regulations and procurement programmes, and insufficient or poorly implemented technology codes and standards.

Project component 2 - Capacity building and development of tools for implementing industrial energy efficiency

Project component 2 aims to build and strengthen technical capacity of national experts from relevant support institutions with respect to energy audit, energy benchmarking, working out energy saving potential, energy management and system optimization at the institutional, market and enterprises level through a combined classroom cum on the job training approach. As result of the expert level trainings at least a cadre of minimum 30 National Experts in industrial energy efficiency is equipped to serve Cambodian industries.
The capacity building program to be implemented by the project component 2 will consists of following stages:

  • 1st stage: Training of a group of selected professionals from pilot industries for data collection compilation to workout baseline before implementation of IEE options, gap analysis and identification and short-listing of techno-economically viable IEE options.
  • 2nd stage: Out of short listed IEE technologies the most suitable, proven and techno-economically viable projects for implementation will be selected, elaborated, and supported to be implemented by the investors with support from the project.
  • 3rd stage: Undertaking a detailed financial engineering of the selected options, with assistance from the project, to support company decision-making, vendor selection and the securing of financing for implementation.
  • 4th stage: raining of group of national professional (National Experts) from relevant institutions for all 3 stages mentioned above.

A group of 30 professionals will be provided with in-depth training and equipped with the technical capacity and tools required to:

a) develop and implement energy management systems and energy efficiency projects in industry, focusing both on thermal and electrical energy optimization;

b) provide training to industry and energy professionals and offer commercial IEE services.

This group of professionals will comprise of energy efficiency consultants and service providers, representatives of relevant Government and public institutions such as Department of Industrial/Energy Techniques, MIME, Institute of Technology of Cambodia (ITC), equipment vendors, and engineers and managers from enterprises. Some of these trained professionals will subsequently work as Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE), Energy Management (EM) experts and become a source of expertise and services for the GEF-UNIDO project, National Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia as well as Cambodian enterprises.

The expert training will consists of the following steps:

Step 1 Preparation of the training program

This involves the preparation of the training material, the selection of trainees, the identification of appropriate factories for in-plant group exercises, securing approval for site visits, classroom logistics, etc.

Step 2 1st training period

International experts provide training to national trainees in classroom and on the job in pilot plants. This first period covers the tools and techniques to conduct energy audit, energy audit reporting format, development and establishment of energy management systems (EnMS) in compliance with EN16001/ ISO50001. This will include the definition of the EnMS boundaries; identification of significant energy uses; definition of the energy profile, baseline and performance indicators; development of IEE options/solutions, action plans with responsibility and operational improvement measures, and so on. During the in-plant session trainees receive “on-the-job” training on how working with enterprises’ management and personnel in getting an energy management plan started.

Step 3 Trainees apply knowledge, skills and tools provided

Trainees coming from manufacturing enterprises go back to their factories and apply the knowledge, skills and tools that have been provided with to get an energy management system and develop operational improvement measures.
Trainees coming from institutions apply knowledge, skills and tools received in other manufacturing enterprises that have agreed to participate in the program (quick scan units). During this period of time, trainees have access to international experts’ and technical advice. These trained IEE professionals in association with National Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia and energy service companies will establish a network of service providers aimed to assist companies in implementing industrial energy efficiency.

Step 4 2nd training period

International experts provide advanced training to national trainees both in classroom and on the job during IEE assessment, technology gap analysis, review (technical, financial and environmental) of identified options for implementation, implementation of techno-economically viable options and performance evaluation of implemented options.

Step 5 Implementation of Energy Management System (EMS) and operational improvement measures

Trainees work with the manufacturing enterprises that have taken part in the training program to fully operationalize the energy management systems developed and reviewed by international experts, and to implement initial operational improvement measures.
Operational improvement measures often are low cost and do require only staff time and external expertise. In case of cost intensive options, capital investments might be needed, the GEF-UNIDO project will provide part financial assistance for implementation which will be useful for on the job training in implementation.

Step 6 Reporting of implemented EMS and improvement measures

Trainees will be required to work (based on individual contract) with the manufacturing enterprises to report annually, for the first two years after implementation, to the GEF-UNIDO project/ Agency for Energy Efficiency on energy performance improvements and energy savings achieved.

The envisaged composition of the group of professionals to be trained as expert consists of representatives from the Department of Industrial Techniques, Energy Techniques of MIME, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, the National Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia being established by UNIDO, managers/engineers from 13 participating enterprises, and about 10 independent consultants and experts providing energy efficiency or environmental management systems technical advisory services.

Local suppliers of relevant technologies (kilns, boilers, etc.) are also trained in IEE. Potential local suppliers are promoted, to ensure more cost-effective technology and more reliable after-sales service.

The project will also train personnel from existing technology suppliers in Cambodia (e.g., suppliers of kilns, boilers, generators, gasifiers etc.). Past experience has shown that technology suppliers can be an important source of knowledge for enterprises. In addition, for a small country like Cambodia much of the technology that is imported needs to be adapted to local scale of operations, and the energy efficiency of adapted technologies is very dependent on the manner in which it is done. In addition, the project will promote the development of local suppliers of technology where they do not exist. On the one hand, this creates a network of after-sales services, which is critical for the sustainability of renewable energy generation and energy efficiency, and on the other hand, it will encourage local suppliers to manufacture equipment locally to reduce the initial capital investment.

Web-based guidance tool/manual on IEE developed

The project will address the issue of sustained replicability by using an ICT (internet based) approach that will populated with training material, relevant information and contact details of technology suppliers, experts, relevant links with useful sites on IEE.

Project component 3: Strengthening of institutional framework for industrial energy efficiency

Project component 3 aims for stronger institutional framework in place to ensure long-term support for energy security and reduced consumption efforts in enterprises. The component is specifically aimed to build capacity in relevant Government department and regulatory agencies for energy generation, distribution and policy makers.
Under this component project will work intensively with the Department of Energy Techniques (DOET) of Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Climate Change Department (CCD) of Ministry Of Environment (MOE), and financial institutions like IFC and private /public sector, National and International banks to ensure long term sustainability of industrial energy efficiency implementation in Cambodia and deliver the following outputs:

  1. Capacity building of relevant government departments to promote industrial energy efficiency: In addition to technical capacity building this component will also cover relevant transaction and contractual aspects - identification and fulfillment of the relevant contractual aspects between the various stakeholders such as the technology supplier, the technology recipient, financers, and the government (the latter will be particularly important in ensuring a viable business proposition between technology supplier and recipients). The National Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia (NCPO-C) in association with MIME will play an important role here in overcoming any hurdles related to IPR in particular.
  2. Companies are trained in preparation of bankable IEE project proposals: For the selected technology agreed for implementation by enterprise “bankable proposals” will be prepared, including full costing for all aspects like environmental costs and liabilities, social sustainability and risk mitigation, for potential financers of the technology.
  3. Capacity building of financial institutions to assess investment proposals in IEE: Financial institutions are key player in investment related EE technology implementation. Access to finance in Cambodia was ranked as the 2nd most severe constraint by the World Bank. In addition to other reasons accessing the credit worthiness of the proposed project is a bottleneck. Traditionally financial institutions assessment is based purely on economic criteria like Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for low investment projects, other factors like resource availability limitation, environmental aspects and related costs, potential liability, occupational health and safety (OHS) are often not accounted. Project will build capacity of financial institutions for total costing and also will attempt to use successful financial instruments like Mutual Credit Guaranteed Trust Fund (MCGTF) in India and Green Credit Line (GCL) of SECO in Vietnam and Columbia.

Project component 4: Up- scaling of industrial energy efficiency applications in Cambodia

Project component 4 is aimed at increased adoption by Cambodian enterprises of energy efficient practices and technologies as an integral part of their business practices and the creation of a national market for industrial energy efficiency products and services.
Under this component the project will work intensively with the Department of Industrial Techniques and Energy Techniques of Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Climate Change Department (CCD) of Ministry Of Environment (MOE), academic institutions like ITC and RUPP and other relevant national institutions and private companies to upscale the energy efficiency implementation in Cambodia and deliver the following outputs:

  1. The results of the pilot projects and quick scans are widely disseminated. It is envisaged that 50 IEE projects for cumulative 60,000 TOEs of energy savings are developed and implemented by industrial enterprises as result of their participation in the capacity building program and results achieved by participating pilot companies of the project.
  2. Industry decision-makers understand their potential for energy efficiency gains both in term of economic and environmental aspects and undertake energy efficiency activities.
  3. Other stakeholders understand their role and associated benefits to promote industrial energy efficiency.

The component 4 of the GEF-UNIDO project will address the issue of sustained replicability by using an integrated approach that will combine the technical support in the implementation, commissioning and performance evaluation of the pilot demonstrations, with interventions at the institutional and policy levels and in the market place so as to assure the development and adoption of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. In addition to upgrade the existing technologies (significant part of IEE implementation) need for energy efficient and renewable energy technology transfer mechanism appropriate for a country like Cambodia is evident. The design of the project will therefore be based on five key elements for successful implementation of energy efficiency related techniques and technology:

(1) Technology need (gap analysis) and technology assessment for technical, financial and environmental aspects using existing tools like (environmentally technology assessment) EnTa of UNEP (also will be part of project component1);
(2) Technology information based on technically available economically viable and environmentally desirable technologies. Preference would be given to technologies available locally or in the region to enable better after sale service network and also to foster south-south co-operation in the GEF-UNIDO project.
(3) Enabling policy level environment: The project will assist RGOC to strengthen, or if necessary develop, policies and regulations that can support development of mechanism and financial incentives for scaling up of the adoption, development and transfer of energy efficiency technologies. One such area of policy that will be targeted, together with the Electrical Energy Authority of Cambodia, the national utility Électricité du Cambodge (EDC), and MIME, is the development of the rules allowing private generators of electricity using renewable resources to feed their surplus generation into their local grid at a fair price (this would make the investments more economically viable).

(4) Capacity building: In combination with PC2&3 the project will train personnel from existing technology suppliers in Cambodia (e.g., suppliers of kilns, boilers, generators, gasifiers etc.). Past experience has shown that technology suppliers can be an important source of knowledge for enterprises. In addition, for a small country like Cambodia much of the technology that is imported needs to be adapted to local scale of operations, and the energy efficiency of adapted technologies is very dependent on the manner in which it is done. In addition, the project will promote the development of local suppliers of technology where they do not exist. On the one hand, this creates a network of after-sales services, which is critical for the sustainability of Renewable energy generation and energy efficiency, and on the other hand, it will encourage local suppliers to manufacture equipment locally to reduce the initial capital investment.
(5) Mechanism to facilitate institutional and financial support to technology cooperation, development and transfer.
(6) As results from the implementation of the energy management systems established in enterprises participating in the Energy Management Expert training will start to accrue, a Practical Guide to the Implementation of Energy Management in Industry in compliance with EN 16001/ISO 50001 international standards tailored to the Cambodian context will be developed building on the output of UNIDO parallel project. The Practical Guide will provide a very useful tool for wider dissemination of energy management best practices and supporting implementation.

Project component 5: Formulation and implementation of policies, regulations and programmes to promote and support sustainable industrial energy efficiency

The project will provide technical assistance to develop and help establish market oriented policies, programs and normative instruments needed to support sustainable progression of Cambodian industries towards international best energy performance and contribute to the creation of a national market for IEE products and services.
Under this component the project will work with the Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Ministry of Environment (MoE) and other relevant national institutions to build and strengthen institutional technical capacity and deliver the following outputs:

1) Develop and establish an IEE Monitoring, Tracking and Benchmarking Program.
2) Develop and establish a National IEE Best Practices Dissemination Program.
3) Develop and establish a National Energy Auditor Certification Program.

1) The objectives of the IEE Monitoring, Tracking and Benchmarking (MTB) Programduring the implementation period of the GEF project are:

  • To develop and establish a GEF-UNIDO project energy savings and GHG savings reporting structure to be used for/by the enterprises participating in the project.

This reporting structure would serve for the following purposes:

- Monitoring and verifying the energy and GHG emissions savings directly generated by and through the GEF-UNIDO project.

- Mechanism to track indirect saving in energy and GHG through GEF-UNIDO project intervention like sensitization and training on IEE.

- Identifying enterprises that in all the 5 identified sectors have achieved the greatest energy efficiency and energy performance improvements by setting the achievable target of national IEE best practices.

  • To develop and establish a national reporting structure for energy consumption and savings in industry that allows defining and tracking energy performance and efficiency indicators at the sector and sub-sector level.

This national reporting structure would be an evolution of the GEF-UNIDO project structure. The purpose of this national structure would be to better inform the design and measure the impact of targeted short- and medium-term policies and programs aimed to support IEE; for example by prioritizing types of interventions and sectors/sub-sectors to receive Government support; developing target-setting agreements and others.

  • To develop and test energy auditing and benchmarking methodology tailored to the Cambodian manufacturing sectors/sub-sectors.

The development of energy benchmarks would be beneficial to policy-makers in designing more targeted and quantitative based IEE supporting policies, such as energy efficiency target setting agreements, but it would be particularly beneficial also to enterprises, which would have the opportunity to better understand their energy performance and identify areas for improvements and/or further analysis. Based on the results of the IEE survey carried out by the project team during the PPG phase, most of surveyed enterprises believes that energy benchmarks would be very useful in identifying EE opportunities, potentials of savings and improve performance.

2) The objective of the National IEE Best Practices Dissemination (BPD) program is twofold:

  • To raise awareness of an increasingly broader industrial audience about the best practices, the benefits as well as the costs of Energy Efficiency (EE) and Energy Management (EM) in the manufacturing sector of Cambodia.
  • To offer a reference point for EE and EM practitioners as well as enterprises where to find information and resources for establishing an energy management system and identifying and developing IEE projects.

The IEE BPD program being established during the GEF-UNIDO project will consist of the following elements:

a) Development of IEE case studies
These case studies will be produced in different ways: simply translating international case studies; based on results and projects generated by the GEF-UNIDO project; based on results/ case studies generated by the Cambodia Cleaner Production Programme.
b) Creation and maintenance of an IEE Best Practices Dissemination website as also part of project component 2.
c) Development and production of user friendly pictorial guideline and EE posters in local language as IEE promotion material.
d) Development of a Practical Guide to the Implementation of Energy Management in Industry in compliance with the EN 16001/ISO 50001 international standards.
e) Organization of workshops/ seminars on the importance of energy efficiency in industry and IEE best practices for Management (2 hrs) manager level (1/2 day) and shop floor level for 1 full day.

3) The objectives of the National Industrial Energy Auditor Accreditation (NEAA) program are:

Another major activity in this project component is the creation of an accreditation program for National Energy experts, service providers, and local ESCOs. In coordination with relevant government institutions, an appropriate accreditation scheme will be developed including testing programs and the definition of the institutional mechanisms for the accreditation program. Moreover, a scheme will be developed to integrate the energy specialist accreditation program to existing related accreditation schemes in the country, in other ASEAN/ASIAN countries and in the developed countries.

  • To provide a policy and normative instrument for supporting medium and long term sustainability and progression of energy savings in industry.
  • To contribute to the creation of a national market for energy efficiency services and products for industry and other sectors.
  • To compile course material, question answer booklet and evaluation paper for Energy auditor in Khmer language.

The NEAA will capitalize the resources and outputs produced mainly through the capacity building project component-2 &3 of the GEF-UNIDO project.

The ultimate goal of the GEF-UNIDO project is to demonstrate IEE benefits through assisting implementation and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at wider scale by contributing to establish a policy and normative environment that enables and supports sustainable adoption of energy efficient technologies and management as an integral part of industries’ business practices. Mechanism for up-scaling by creating an environment in which a cadre of well-trained and equipped experts in energy management and system optimization assists industries in developing and implementing energy efficiency improvement projects.

Expected Global Environmental Benefits to be delivered

Industrial decision makers from Cambodia, likewise most of other countries often links improved energy efficiency or cleaner production with new hardware, either being new production technologies or looking at individual components substitution (kilns, engines, motors, pumps, boilers, etc.) rather than how energy is managed and how energy producing and consuming systems are operated. NCPO-C experience in implementation of resource efficiency and cleaner production in Cambodia is also same and focus/understanding is mostly on new hardware for EE rather than optimizing the existing one before assessing the feasibility of new technologies. In many cases, such approach leads to significant unrealized energy savings or unattractive proposition due to high investment and capital cost. Strategy of energy efficiency in industry requires attention not only direct energy usage but also material and water intensity which is linked to energy intensity. Usage of energy is intertwined with the whole production process and the adoption of an energy system optimization approach. Past experience in OECD countries shows that:

b. While equipment components substitution can usually deliver efficiency gains of 2-5%, energy savings in excess of 20% are achieved through system optimization. However, in context of Cambodia this is not relevant as most of technology used in 5 selected sector (except garment) is obsolete and inefficient and substitution of equipment/ change in technology both hardware and software has much higher saving potential contrary to OECD countries.
c. Cambodian enterprises like other enterprises in developing countries having CP centres or CP institutions have implemented low cost/no cost energy efficiency measures in their business with attractive returns, however, low hanging fruits have a limit and it shall be clubbed together with cost involved technology related interventions.
d. Based on the data collected and the energy audits carried out during the PPG phase, consideration of possible baseline trajectory, draft report of Second National Communication prepared by MOE to UNFCCC, review of existing literature on national experiences in other countries and international best practices, it has been estimated that over the period 2012-2021 the project will be instrumental to deliver between 195,000 to 260,000 tons CO2eq of cumulative direct GHG emissions savings and 194,600 to 250,500 tons CO2eq of indirect emissions savings by 2022. Please see Additional Annex F for a detailed description of how direct and indirect GHG emission savings have been estimated.

Contact: For further information, please contact:

Nation Cleaner Production Office-Cambodia
Department of Industrial Techniques
Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy
#45, Preah Norodom Blvd, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Tel : (855) 23 222 076
Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Heinz Leuenberger, Director
Environmental Management Branch
Vienna International Centre, P.O.Box 300, 1400 Viena, Austria.
Tel: (+43-1) 26026-5611
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.